The European Spirit
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Valery, Paul: Address on the Second World War

A Radio Address [September 1939] [From History and Politics, transl. Denis Folliot and Jackson Mathews; © Princeton University Press; published by permission] NOTHING today must be overlooked that can define and clarify in all minds -friend’s or enemy’s- the true nature of the war that has begun. It is important to France and her cause, which is the cause of all men worthy of the name, that for the eyes of the world the strongest light should be thrown on the conditions that made this war at first possible and then inevitable. These conditions can be summed up in a few words: this is a war between certain free countries and one that is not. What is a free country? It is a country in which there is reciprocity of service and obligation between the State and the individual. In a free country the State is not an island; it...

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Tonsor, Stephen J.: Tradition and the Crisis of Western Culture

Jacob Burckhardt: Tradition and the Crisis of Western Culture From Modern Age, a Quarterly Review, vol.39, winter 1997. By the second half of the nineteenth century it was clear that the French Revolution had ushered in an era of cultural crisis unprecedented in nature. To a far greater extent than the Renaissance and Reformation the French Revolution broke the pattern of the past, overturned the previous religious, social and political order and promised a new and perfected humanity. The Jacobin terror, which became the revolution’s hallmark ushered in the tyranny of Napoleon. In the half century, which followed the French Revolution, wave after revolutionary wave challenged the stability of state and society in Europe and Latin America. Revolutionary equality became more important ideologically than liberty, and socialism promised the bright future, which the French Revolution failed to provide. The Restoration of the ancient order after 1815 was only partially successful...

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Shattuck, Roger: Faustian Man

An extract from Forbidden Knowledge. From Prometheus to Pornography, St Martin’s Press, New York , ISBN 0-312-14602-7 Το a remarkable degree, the opening scenes in Faust’s study recapitulate the first two parts of Descartes’ Discourse οn Method. Descartes tells us how he abandoned the study of literature, mathematics, theology, philosophy, law, medicine, and rhetoric for more practical knowledge to be gained from travel, experience, and common sense. Faust tells us that he has an advanced degree in all those fields. The difference between the two stories lies in their timing, in where they pick up the thread of the action. We come upon Faust in his study just when he is impatiently trying to break out of his musty learning in order to seek a life of action. We come upon Descartes just as he settles back into his study (poκle) after years of soldiering and travel. What Descartes describes...

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Quirini: An account of Germany in 1507

[extract] From: James Harvey Robinson Readings in European History, The Athenaeum Press, Boston , 1906 SINCE, most serene prince [namely, the doge], and most sage and weighty council, all the discord which is now to be observed among Christian peoples appears to be due to the most serene king of the Romans [namely, Maximilian] and to the Empire, it seemed to me my duty to report to your excellencies concerning affairs in Germany with such fullness as to enable you in the present emergencies and in those which you will have to face from, let us say, to-day the better to reach your wise decisions. First, to proceed in an orderly fashion, I will endeavor to narrate all that I have been able to learn of the extent of that country, its government and resources of his Majesty the emperor, and the relations which have existed and now exist between...

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Mann, Thomas: God Help our Darkened and Desecrated Country

[A LETTER TO THE DEAN OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL FACULTY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BONN] AT THE beginning of 1937, when Thomas Mann, then living in temporary exile in Zurich, received a letter from the Dean of the Philosophical Faculty of the Frederick-William University at Bonn stating: TO HERR THOMAS MANN, WRITER: By the request of the Rector of the University of Bonn, I must inform you that as a consequence of your loss of citizenship the Philosophical Faculty finds itself obliged to strike your name off its roll of honorary doctors. Your right to use this title is cancelled in accordance with Article VIII of the regulations concerning the conferring degrees. To this curt note, Thomas Mann replied, addressing not only the Dean but the German people, in the letter that follows: TO THE Dean of the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Bonn. I have received the melancholy communication...

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Louis XIV: The Foundation of the Academy of France: Letters patent

[Extract] From: James Harvey Robinson Readings in European History, The Atheneum Press, Boston , 1906 WHEN GOD called us to the headship of the state we cherished the purpose not only of putting an end to the disorders caused by the civil wars which had so long distracted the realm, but we also aimed to adorn the state with all the ornaments appropriate to the oldest and most illustrious of existing monarchies. Although we have labored without intermission to realize this purpose, it has been impossible hitherto fully to accomplish it. … [But now] the confusion has at last given way to good order, which we have re-established by the best of all means, namely, by reviving commerce, enforcing military discipline in our armies, adjusting the taxes, and checking luxury. Everyone is aware of the part that our very dear and beloved cousin, the cardinal, duke of Richelieu, has had...

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Huizinga, Johan: Art in Life

Translated by Rodney J. Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch. From ‘The autumn of the middle ages”, University of Chicago Press, 1996. FRENCH-BURGUNDIAN CULTURE OF LATE MEDIEVAL times is best known to the present age through its fine art, most notably its painting. Our perception of the time is dominated by the brothers Van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Memling, and the sculptor Sluter. This has not always been the case. Some fifty years ago or even somewhat earlier, the average educated person knew those times primarily through their history. This knowledge was not, certainly, as a rule acquired directly from Monstrelet and Chastellain, but rather from De Barante’s Histoire des Dues de Bourgogne, which is based on those two authors. And is it not the case, that over and beyond De Barante, it was mostly Victor Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris that embodied the image most people had of that period?...

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Desmoulins, Camille: Democracy is Clemency

[Extract] Editorial in his newspaper, The Old Cordelier , December 20, 1793, during the French Revolution. From: James Harvey Robinson Readings in European History, The Atheneum Press, Boston , 1906 SOME PERSONS have expressed their disapproval of my third issue, where as they allege, I have been pleased to suggest certain comparisons which tend to cast an unfavorable light on the Revolution and the patriots, -they should say the excess of revolution and the professional patriots. My critics think the whole number refuted and everybody justified by the single reflection, “We all know that the present situation is not one of freedom, -but patience! you will be free one of these days.” Such people think apparently that liberty, like infancy, must of necessity pass through a stage of wailing and tears before it reaches maturity. On the contrary, it is of the nature of liberty that, in order to enjoy...

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εκδ. ΠΟΤΑΜΟΣ, Αθήνα 2000

Ας προσέξουμε τη μελαγχολική διαπίστωση του Κωνσταντίνου Καραμανλή -διεθνώς αναγνωρισμένου μεγάλου Ευρωπαίου- για την έλλειψη προσωπικοτήτων που θα έδιναν πάλι όραμα και ορμή στο ευρωπαϊκό γίγνεσθαι. Λίγες μέρες προτού πεθάνει μου είχε πει: «Σου έχω πει από πολύν καιρό και το επαναλαμβάνω, δεν πάει καλά η Ευρώπη!.. Έχει χάσει τον δυναμισμό της, την πίστη στον εαυτό της. Της έλειψε η θέληση για μια πραγματική πολιτική ένωση. Την ένωση που θα την καθιστούσε ικανή να διαδραματίσει σπουδαίο ρόλο σ’ ολόκληρο τον κόσμο. Προς το συμφέρον όλου του κόσμου. Κατατρίβεται με πολλά και αποφεύγει το βασικό: να διαμορφώσει στερεούς θεσμούς που θα υπηρετούν ένα μεγάλο όραμα. Έχασε τις ευκαιρίες που της παρουσιάστηκαν. Όσο εξαπλώνεται χωρίς γερά θεμέλια, τόσο αδυνατίζει και παραπαίει. Και ρωτώ: Πού βλέπεις σήμερα ηγέτες εμπνευσμένους από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ιδέα, έτοιμους να αγωνισθούν με συνέπεια για την πραγμάτωσή της; Πρόθυμους έστω να περιστείλουν κάπως τις εθνικές σκοπιμότητες και τους οικονομικούς ανταγωνισμούς; http://www.potamos.com.gr/



Στο βιβλίο αυτό παρατίθενται όλες οι αρχαίες πηγές και οι επιστημονικές θεωρίες που έχουν διατυπωθεί για τη Mάχη του Μαραθώνα, συμπεριλαμβανομένης της άποψης του συγγραφέα, η οποία βασίζεται στις γραπτές μαρτυρίες και κυρίως στην αφήγηση του Ηρόδοτου. Πλήρης βιβλιογραφία, από το 17ο αιώνα μέχρι σήμερα, και σπάνιοι χάρτες, συμπληρώνουν την έκδοση.



"Καλησπέρα σας κύριε Σεφέρη"

«Ο Σεφέρης εκεί, άλλοτε σκοτεινός, άλλοτε ευανάγνωστος διέτρεχε τα χρόνια, πιο πολύ στα δύσκολα, πιο αραιά στα εύκολα, σύντροφος στα κουπιά. Πάντοτε όμως, ένας οικείος άγνωστος. Πώς θα ήταν, αναρωτήθηκα, αν άνοιγα μια κουβέντα μαζί του; Να του ζητήσω να μας πει για τη Σμύρνη, το φευγιό για την Αθήνα, την ποίηση, τη διχασμένη του καρδιά, για την πολιτική, την Κύπρο που λάτρεψε, τον Θεόφιλο και τον Μακρυγιάννη, τη μουσική, την Μαρώ, το γυρισμό του ξενιτεμένου, τον ελληνισμό στον οποίον πίστεψε τόσο πολύ;»


Καζάκος Πάνος

Έτοιμη για το μέλλον;

Η Ευρώπη μετά
την αναθεώρηση των συνθηκών

Το βιβλίο αυτό εξετάζει, πρώτον, τις αλλαγές που επιφέρει η Μεταρρυθμιστική Συνθήκη στους κανόνες της ευρωπαϊκής ενοποίησης και, δεύτερον, τις πιθανές επιπτώσεις της σε πολιτικές και συσχετισμούς! Αναδεικνύει ευκρινώς μόνιμα ευρωπαϊκά διλήμματα σχετικά με – το οικονομικό μοντέλο (φιλελεύθερη Ευρώπη» έναντι «ευρωπαϊκού κοινωνικού μοντέλου»), – τη στρατηγική ασφαλείας («ειρηνική» (civilian) ή «στρατιωτική» δύναμη) και – την ταυτότητα της αυριανής Ευρώπης, που έχουν τη θέση τους σε ένα ανοιχτό διάλογο. Εξετάζονται επίσης τα ερωτήματα αν και πως οι απαντήσεις της Μεταρρυθμιστικής Συνθήκης θα επηρεάσουν τη θέση της Ελλάδας στο θεσμικό σύστημα της Ένωσης, την εξωτερική της ασφάλεια, τις οικονομικές πολιτικές της και τις ροές πόρων.