The Struggle for Europe
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The Theses of Europese Actie

Published in Je Maintiendrai, 14 June 1946; here translated from a German version, Die Thesen der Europäischen Aktion, pamphlet, s.l.n.d. From W.Lipgens and W. Loth, Documents on the History of European Integration, De Gruyter, 1988 I. Against defeatism and for an international rule of law. We must combat defeatism as firmly as we resisted tyranny. Anyone who talks of the inevitability of war is guilty of helping to cause it. He who regards political and social problems as insoluble and does not feel responsible for trying to solve them is enhancing the danger of anarchy and revolution. Christian faith and a human sense of responsibility require that each of us contribute to shaping his political surroundings and that we reject all defeatism. II. Peace through submission to a supranational rule of law The danger of modern warfare has become so incalculable, even for the strongest states, that it far outweighs...

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Swedberg, Richard: The Idea of ‘Europe’ and the Origin of the European Union

Stockholm University, Department of Sociology, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Notes and references are excluded. A united Europe is not a modern expedient, be it political or economic, but an ideal which has been accepted since thousands of years by the best spirits of Europe, namely those who can see into the future. Already Homer described Zeus as “europos” – an adjectiv meaning “one who sees very far”. Denis de Rougemont, Vingt-huit siècles d’Europe (1961) It is usually claimed that the European Union (EU) traces its beginnings to the years just after World War II and possibly also to various political-economic developments during the interwar period.  A recent and very valuable contribution to the literature on this subject is, for example, Coal, Steel and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945-1955 by John Gillingham, where it is argued that the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) represents a solution to the so-called Ruhr problem....

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Spinelli, Altiero: Speech at first UEF congress

Published in A. Spinelli, Dagli stati sovrani agli Stati Uniti d’Europa, repr. in L. Levi and S. Pistone, Trent’anni di vita del MFE (here excerpted). From W.Lipgens and W. Loth, Documents on the History of European Integration, De Gruyter, 1988 We cannot and do not wish to conceal from ourselves that the only countries capable of taking European initiatives at present are those in the Western or, one may say, the American part of the continent. Nothing is sadder than the fact that the ideal Europe, the cradle of law and liberty, constitutes only part of the geographical area of Europe. What is more, that area is certain to shrink, and European civilization to become a mere historical memory, unless we can at least unite what at present remains of it. European initiatives are possible where American influence preponderates, mainly because in most of Western Europe democratic institutions continue to...

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Silone, Ignazio: The European mission of socialism

La missione europea del socialismo , 26 Oct. 1947, from S. Pistone, L’Italia e I’unitd europea. Translated at W.Lipgens and W. Loth, Documents on the History of European Integration, De Gruyter, 1988. (…) A renewal of the struggle for European union is a vital necessity and the only means of salvation for the free countries of the old continent. The sad facts we have pointed out do not, of course, call in question the good will of the protagonists. The gravity of the situation is admitted by all: the fragility of the present peace is a matter of universal apprehension. Each party is vying to declare itself more pacifist than the others. But we must not ignore the fact that it is an indeterminate pacifism, not free from the traditional weaknesses of the old inconclusive kind. What does fighting for peace mean if it does not include sincere good will,...

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Schuman, Robert: Memoirs pour l’ Europe

Memoirs: “Pour l’ Europe” “The Europeans will be saved if they are aware of their solidarity in the face of a common danger … the current fears will be the immediate cause of European unification, but not its raison d’ etre Depending on the circumstances surrounding its creation, Europe will be more or less complete. Will it ever be complete? No-one can say. This is not a reason for delaying the effort to achieve unification. Action is better than resignation and the desire for perfection is a poor excuse for inaction.” “Let this idea of a reconciled, united and strong Europe now be the watchword for the young generations who wish to serve a human race which has finally thrown off the bonds of hate and fear and which is learning once again, after seemingly endless rifts, what Christian brotherhood means.” “In our minds, European policy is in no way...

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Schmal, J.J.R.: We are Europeans because we are Dutch

Handelingen der Staten-Generaal, Zitting , Zitting 1948-49, Tweede Kamer, 63ste Vergadering, 5 July 1949. From W.Lipgens and W. Loth, Documents on the History of European Integration, De Gruyter, 1988 As at present envisaged, the Council of Europe has room for all men of goodwill. In this line of thought I too venture to say that we are beginning something new. Such a new beginning always presents a target for destructive critics and, what is worse, sceptics who shrug their shoulders and ask ‘What good is it to me? What do I get out of it?’ To them I would reply, in the words of Scripture: ‘Quench not the Spirit.’ Nothing in this world was ever achieved by shrugging one’s shoulders. To succeed in anything, one must be ready for solid effort and sacrifice. The good cause is also threatened from another quarter, and I believe this is more dangerous still:...

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Rougemont, Denis de: Europe Unites

A Lecture on “The History of the Ideal for a United Europe”. From: The Meaning of Europe, translated by Alan Braley,F.I.L.; published by Sidgwick & Jackson, London 1965; © Denis de Rougemont TAKEN ONE by one, the vital organs of our society appear to me to be in quite good condition. It remains to discover whether the subject of our inquiry, Europe, still possesses a sufficient will to live to be able to fulfil the new functions which from now on are allotted to it in the world. I shall now endeavour to show that in practice, Europe’s will to live means her will to unite. From diversity to division THESE TWO things are not necessarily identical. Indeed, there might seem to be a contradiction between giving Europe a clean bill of health and saying that she needs to unite. for if all is well, why do we need to...

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Monnet, Jean: The first meeting of the High Authority of the Coal and Steel Community

Speech at the inauguration of the High Authority. Luxembourg, August 10th, 1952. Gentlemen, The first meeting of the High Authority of the Coal and Steel Community is now open. At this moment, which marks the accomplishment of an undertaking tenaciously carried out for over two years, I must first pay homage to the statesmen of our six countries whose farsightedness and determination made it possible. I want also to extend the thanks which they merit to all of those who have contributed to the preparation of the Treaty which is our charter. Especially, at the moment when the establishment of the Community turns what the world rightly calls the “Schuman Plan” into a living reality, let me recall the gratitude which Europe will always cherish towards President Robert Schuman who, by launching the appeal of May 9, 1950, took the initiative and the responsibility of setting our Continent on the...

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"Καλησπέρα σας κύριε Σεφέρη"

«Ο Σεφέρης εκεί, άλλοτε σκοτεινός, άλλοτε ευανάγνωστος διέτρεχε τα χρόνια, πιο πολύ στα δύσκολα, πιο αραιά στα εύκολα, σύντροφος στα κουπιά. Πάντοτε όμως, ένας οικείος άγνωστος. Πώς θα ήταν, αναρωτήθηκα, αν άνοιγα μια κουβέντα μαζί του; Να του ζητήσω να μας πει για τη Σμύρνη, το φευγιό για την Αθήνα, την ποίηση, τη διχασμένη του καρδιά, για την πολιτική, την Κύπρο που λάτρεψε, τον Θεόφιλο και τον Μακρυγιάννη, τη μουσική, την Μαρώ, το γυρισμό του ξενιτεμένου, τον ελληνισμό στον οποίον πίστεψε τόσο πολύ;»




Με αφορμή κουβέντες των «μεγάλων» για έναν κόσμο που σχετικώς πρόσφατα είχε καταποντισθεί και που αυτοί είχαν γνωρίσει, γεννήθηκε σε ένα πεντάχρονο παιδί ένα αίσθημα, μισό περιέργεια και μισό νοσταλγία, για τη Μικρά Ασία των δικών του από την πλευρά της μητέρας του. Περνώντας από τα ακούσματα στα βιβλία και τα οικογενειακά χαρτιά, η γνώση για τις μικρασιατικές του ρίζες έγινε με τον καιρό πιο στέρεη και πήγε στον χρόνο πιο βαθιά, ώσπου στα δεκαεννέα του αξιώθηκε την πρώτη επίσκεψη στην άλλη πλευρά του Αιγαίου.


Ευρωπαϊκή Ολοκλήρωση

41 διακεκριμένοι ειδικοί, μέλη της ελληνικής επιστημονικής κοινότητας των Ευρωπαϊκών Σπουδών, τιμούν τον Παναγιώτη Κ. Ιωακειμίδη, συνεπή οραματιστή και ακτιβιστή υπέρ της ενωμένης Ευρώπης. Επί τέσσερις δεκαετίες, ο Παναγιώτης Κ. Ιωακειμίδης συμβάλλει ενεργά στη χάραξη της εθνικής στρατηγικής απέναντι στην ευρωπαϊκή ολοκλήρωση και τη συνεχή εξέλιξή της. Πέρα από διαμορφωτής πολιτικής, ως δημόσιος διανοούμενος βρίσκεται στο επίκεντρο του δημόσιου διαλόγου στη χώρα μας σχετικά με την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση και τον ευρωπαϊκό ρόλο της Ελλάδας, ενώ γενιές φοιτητών πρωτογνώρισαν την ευρωπαϊκή ολοκλήρωση μέσω της πανεπιστημιακής διδασκαλίας του.


Καζάκος Πάνος

Έτοιμη για το μέλλον;

Η Ευρώπη μετά
την αναθεώρηση των συνθηκών

Το βιβλίο αυτό εξετάζει, πρώτον, τις αλλαγές που επιφέρει η Μεταρρυθμιστική Συνθήκη στους κανόνες της ευρωπαϊκής ενοποίησης και, δεύτερον, τις πιθανές επιπτώσεις της σε πολιτικές και συσχετισμούς! Αναδεικνύει ευκρινώς μόνιμα ευρωπαϊκά διλήμματα σχετικά με – το οικονομικό μοντέλο (φιλελεύθερη Ευρώπη» έναντι «ευρωπαϊκού κοινωνικού μοντέλου»), – τη στρατηγική ασφαλείας («ειρηνική» (civilian) ή «στρατιωτική» δύναμη) και – την ταυτότητα της αυριανής Ευρώπης, που έχουν τη θέση τους σε ένα ανοιχτό διάλογο. Εξετάζονται επίσης τα ερωτήματα αν και πως οι απαντήσεις της Μεταρρυθμιστικής Συνθήκης θα επηρεάσουν τη θέση της Ελλάδας στο θεσμικό σύστημα της Ένωσης, την εξωτερική της ασφάλεια, τις οικονομικές πολιτικές της και τις ροές πόρων.